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US8283271B2 High strength proppants Google Patents

A sintered ceramic particle made from a ceramic material having a true density greater than 3.5 g/cc and a composition having no more than 30 weight percent silicon oxide and at least 15 weight percent iron oxide, based on the combined weight of the oxides of aluminum, iron and silicon, is disclosed. A process that utilizes an externally applied compressive force to make a ceramic particle is

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Naima Bestaoui-Spurr Inventions, Patents and Patent

Jan 22, 2021 · Abstract The strength of a proppant or sand control particulate may be improved by coating the proppant to form a composite. The composite has enhanced compressive strength between about 34 to about 130 MPa and minimizes the spalling of fines at closure stresses in excess of 5,000 psi.

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Global Proppant MarketGlobal Industry Analysis and

Global Proppant Market. Proppant market is segmented into type, application, and region. In terms of type, sand material held the largest volume share, of more than 85.0%, in the proppant market in 2021. Low cost and high availability of sand as compared to other proppants are anticipated to help maintain market leadership over the forecast period.

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US20210202178A1 Hydraulic fracturing proppants Google

A method is given for treating a wellbore in a subterranean formation by hydraulic fracturing, slickwater fracturing, gravel packing, and the like, by using plate-like materials as some or all of the proppant or gravel. The plate-like materials are particularly useful in complex fracture systems, for example in shales. They may be used as from about 20 to about 100% of the proppant.

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NORTHERN WHITE SAND Superior Silica Sands

Crush Resistance K-Value <25 0.8 0.8 1.55 97.01 2.67 0.695 0.683 0.8 4K <25 0.8 0.9 1.53 95.54 2.65 0.556 0.544 0.8 7K <25proppant in North America. Our Wisconsin deposits reliably yield high-quality sand with superb characteristics, making our Northern White Sand an excellent proppant choice for fracturing operations requiring robust

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Modified API/ISO Crush Tests With a Liquid-Saturated

Jan 19, 2021 · The American Petroleum Institute (API) crush tests for proppants found in recommended practices (e.g. RP 56, 58, & 60) are typically used to compare the crush resistance of recognized API proppant sizes at a predetermined stress under dry and ambient conditions (API, 1995).

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Thomas Parias Inventions, Patents and Patent Applications

Jun 07, 2021 · Abstract A sintered rod-shaped proppant and anti-flowback agent possesses high strength and high conductivity. The sintered rods comprise between about 0.2% by weight and about 4% by weight aluminum titanate. In some embodiments, the sintered rods are made by mixing bauxitic and non-bauxitic sources of alumina that may also contain several so-called impurities (such as TiO2),

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Frac Sand Sepro Labs

Crush resistance under high pressure Sepro Laboratories, with its diverse knowledge and experience in mineral processing, uses a variety of tests to determine the most efficient method of taking non-ideal sand and improving its properties, allowing it to meet and exceed industry standards.

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Proppant Market Overview

West TX Sand Co Permian 3.0 Q3 2021 Wisconsin Proppants Permian 3.0 Q3 2021 Monarch Eagle Ford 4.0 Q3 2021 Total Greenfield Capacity 24.4 million tons Company Play Tons Operationalcrush resistance and high acid solubility DJ Basin Source Internal Estimates, Energent Group. Resin Northern White 40/70 & 100 Mesh Local 100 Mesh Local 40/70 0

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Top 3 Bauxite Uses Australia's Heavy Metal DutyMEC Mining

Mar 02, 2021 · These beads have a very high crush resistance and that makes them an ideal oil field proppant. In drilling for oil and natural gas, the reservoir rock is often fractured by pumping fluids into the well under very high pressures. The pressure builds up to very high

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Proppant Market Size, Share, Scope, Opportunities, Trends

Proppant Market Size And Forecast. Proppant Market was valued at USD 8.5 Billion in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 15.24 Billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of 7.7% from 2021 to 2021.. The growing acceptance of ceramic proppant owing to its high strength & crush resistance properties and the rising demand from the construction industry are likely to fuel the growth of the proppant market

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Turning Filling Material into Proppant for Coalbed Methane

According to the API and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards, all sand proppants with a weight crush rate <10% are considered to have passed the crush resistant test . The filling material had the ability to withstand a stress level of 20.68 MPa and 27.58 MPa under cyclic and normal load conditions, respectively.

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TECHNICAL DATA SHEET

Primary proppant in deep water-fracs Highly abrasive for fracture face scouring. Fine grains for transport in slick water and linear gels. High strength bauxite mineralogy for crush resistance. Advantages over silica sand Stronger, more durable due to mineralogy. More angularity. 30 times more abrasive. Higher crush resistance. Higher

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Technology Roundtable Proppants ROGTEC

Jun 14, 2021 · The 2021 use forecast is 1,350 thousand tons.(20/4012/18) with crush resistance of 40006000 psi. So, Russian sands are still not the right alternative to ceramic proppants as they have poor grain shape and strength even being precisely sieved. Resin coated ceramics take about 20% of the market, and are mostly used as curable RCP

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Proppant Market Growing at a CAGR of 10.4% During Forecast

Increasing popularity of ceramic proppant such as crush resistance, high strength and conductivity are the major factors driving the growth of global proppant market over the estimated period. Additionally, the increasing number of horizontal wells in North America is further accelerating the demand for proppant per well which is ultimately

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US7562583B2 Apparatus and method for measuring crush

Apparatus and method are provided for loading a cell for testing crush-resistance of a proppant or other granular material. The apparatus includes a rod valve and one or two screens selected to allow proppant to pluviate into the cell. Stress may be applied to the cell and the amount of proppant crushed by the stress may be measured.

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US4892147A Hydraulic fracturing utilizing a refractory

Silicon carbide is used as a proppant during a hydraulic fracturing process. The proppant is particularly useful when steam-flooding or acidizing a formation. This proppant is crush resistant and impervious to HCl and HCl/HF acids. High formation and reservoir stimulation temperatures do not affect said proppant. Induced fractures are therefore more effectively propped.

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Exploring and Evaluation of Paleozoic Saudi Arabian Sand

Crush resistance test results according ANSI/API 19C, Practice 56High Strength Proppants Ibrahim et al. 2021 EDS spectrum of Siq sandstone shows SiO 2 SEM image of Siq formation with Surface Crack (SC) and Dissolution Surface (DS) DS SC. Conclusions Different depositional environments are responsible for the variation of their grain size

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Behavior of Proppants Under Cyclic StressRequest

Jan 2021; Ahmed M. Elsarawystages when the level of net stress exerted on the proppant exceeds the actual crush resistance of the material.for Testing High Strength Proppant Used in

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Fracture Conductivity Comparison of Ceramic Proppants

Specific gravity, proppants at intermediate and high stresses. Specific gravity, corrosion resistance, and crush resistance of each proppant also were determined. proppant also were determined. Fracture conductivity was measured to a laminar flow of deaerated, deionized water over a closure stress range of 6.9 to 96.5 MPa [1,000 to 14,000 psi

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Adheesha Bandara Postdoctoral Researcher (3GDeep Energy

Proppants, the main component in reservoir stimulation projects, are used to keep fractures open and allow the efficient extraction of oil/gas. Although natural sand was very often used as a proppant in past decades, ceramic proppants have gained attention due to their lower crush resistance.

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Ceramic Proppants Consulting and Expertise

Density similar to Sand with much higher crush resistance than sand; Standard sizes 20/40 LWP 30/50 LWP and 40/70 LWP; Intermediate Strength Ceramic Proppant is designed for high performance in natural gas and oil wells with closure stresses of up to 12,500 psi and higher. Characteristics High flow capacity for optimal returns.

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Proppant Products and Processes Sierra Frac Sand

The strength of our thrice washed, friction polished in-basin 100 mesh has a 9K crush factor, well above the average of 5K-8K, making it the highest crush strength in the area. Our 40/70 mesh also has an above-average crush resistance of 7K, well above the 5K average.

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Statistical Study of the Crush Resistance Measurement for

The American Petroleum Institute (API) defines the crush resistance test for proppants. 1 A cylindrical cell holds a quantity of proppant and mechanical force compresses the proppant volume uniaxially at a specific rate to a desired pressure. After release of the mechanical force, the size distribution of the crushed proppant is measured.

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Evaluation of Eolian Sand Deposits in North and South

In 2021 it was learned that there was a desire by the oil and gas industry to source their proppant sand from in‐basin sources in order to avoid the high costs associated with importing sands from other parts of the U.S., particularly the upper‐Midwest, and from overseas.

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Proppant Crushing Mechanisms Under Reservoir Conditions

Dec 15, 2021 · Proppant crushing, a major proppant failure mechanism, occurs in geothermal energy and oil/gas stimulation production stages when the level of net stress exerted on the proppant exceeds the actual crush resistance of the material. Loss of effective reservoir conductivity due to proppant crushing can result in significant loss in productivity, and so it is crucial to understand the realistic

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Synthesis and microstructural evolution in iron oxide

Jun 01, 2021 · Enhanced crush resistance with increasing density is a standard trade off in developing light-weight proppant. The pores which reduce density also weaken the material. In commercial bauxite proppant, low fine yield (35 wt%) at 10,000 psi is observed but the density is high (2.2 g/cm 3 ) [51] .

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Postdoctoral Researcher at

Use Of SEPPE Bauxite As A Proppant SEPPE

These beads have a very high crush resistance, and that makes them suitable as a proppant. They can be produced in almost any size and in a range of specific gravity. The specific gravity of the beads and their size can be matched to the viscosity of the hydraulic fracturing fluid and to the size of fractures that are expected to develop in the

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Application Note Horiba

The quality control of the proppants is described mainly in ISO 13503-2 (1), which replaces the earlier API standards RP 56, 58 and 60. Among other tests, the standards demand the test of size, shape and crush resistance. Size The size range of the proppant is very important. Typical proppant sizes are generally between 8 and 140 mesh (106

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Proppant Crush Test for frack sand, resin coated sand and

Proppant crush resistance tests aim to determine the proppant porosity under high pressures. Mechanical properties such as proppant crush resistance, specific gravity and bulk density are determined in hydraulic fracture tests. ISO 13503-2 Sec 11.3 Proppant Crush Resistance Test defines the test method currently used to test proppants used in

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Testing StandardsHydraulic Fracturing Proppants

Dec 12, 2021 · Crush resistance is important because fewer proppant particles with greater crush resistance will be crushed under the same closure stress of the fracture to generate tiny particles referred to as "fines" blocking the open pathways for hydrocarbons to travel through the packingAugust 2021. This standard provides standard testing

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Algorithms for 3D Particles Characterization Using X-Ray

Received 4 October 2021; Accepted 9 November 2021; Published 12 November 2021 Abstract We present image processing algorithms for a new technique of ceramic proppant crush resistance characterization. To obtain the images of the proppant material before and after the test we used X-ray microtomography.

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